The top fighter aircraft of 2017 (BVR combat)
Picture credit: Jamie Hunter
To excel in Beyond Visual Range air combat a fighter must be well-armed and equipped with capable avionics. It must be able to fly high and fast to impart the maximum range to its missiles, allowing them to hit the enemy before he is even aware of their presence. The aircraft must give its crews sufficient situational awareness not to shoot their friends down, and be easy to operate so it can deploy its weapons quickly and accurately. The black magic of the aircraft’s electronic warfare suite can also come into its own, reducing the opponent’s situational awareness.
Hardware is generally less important than training and tactics — removing these human factors from the mix allows us to judge the most deadly long-range fighting machines currently in service. The exact ordering of this list is open to question, but all the types mentioned are extraordinarily potent killers. This list only includes currently active fighters (so no PAK FAs etc) and only includes weapons and sensors that are actually in service today. The Chengdu J-20 is not considered mature enough to make this list.
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(This list is BVR only, for WVR see here)
10. Lockheed Martin F-16E/F
Boeing F/A-18E/F Super Hornet
A great sensor suite, including a modern AESA and comprehensive defensive aids systems is combined with advanced weapons and a proven platform; a small radar cross section also helps. However, the type is let down by mediocre ‘high and fast’ performance, and fewer missiles and a smaller detection range than some of its larger rivals. With Conformal Fuel Tanks its agility is severely limited.
Armament for A2A mission: 4 x AIM-120C-7, 2 x AIM-9X (1 x 20-mm cannon).
Boeing F/A-18E/F Super Hornet
Well equipped with a great defensive system and excellent weapons the Super Hornet has much to offer. It is happiest at lower speeds and altitudes, making it a fearsome dogfighter, but is less capable at the BVR mission; a mediocre high-speed high-altitude performance disadvantage the ‘Rhino’ as does a pedestrian climb rate and poor acceleration at higher speeds. The touch screen cockpit has disadvantages, as switches and buttons can be felt ‘blind’ and do not require ‘heads-down’ use. The much-touted AN/APG-79 AESA radars introduced on Block II aircraft has proved unreliable and has enormous development problems. One scathing report said ‘ …operational testing does not demonstrate a statistically significant difference in mission accomplishment between F/A-18E/F aircraft equipped with AESA and those equipped with the legacy radar.’
Read an exclusive interview with a Super Hornet pilot here.
This list, which for the sake of brevity (largely) treats aircraft as isolated weapon systems, does not favour the Super Hornet: in reality, with support from E-2Ds and advanced other assets, US Navy Super Hornets would be extremely capable in the BVR arena against most adversaries.
Armament for A2A mission: Super Hornet (high drag ‘Christmas tree’) 12 x AIM-120, realistic = 6 x AIM-120C-7 + 2/4 AIM-9X ) (1 x 20-mm cannon)
9. Sukhoi Su-30MK
The most capable official members of Sukhoi’s legacy ‘Flanker’ family are the export Su-30MKs. Agile and well-armed, they are formidable opponents. Armed with ten missiles the Su-30 has an impressive combat persistence and is able to fly remarkably long distance missions. The radar is a large, long-ranged PESA (featuring some elements of an AESA) and Indian aircraft carry particularly good Israeli jamming pods. The type has proved itself superior to both the RAF’s Tornado F.Mk 3 and USAF’s F-15C in exercises, though the degree of dominance over the F-15C is marginal to the point that superior training, tactics and C3 saw the US lord over the type in later exercises. The pilot workload is higher than in later Western designs, the engines demanding to maintain and the vast airframe has a large radar cross section.
A2A armament: 6 x R-77, 4 x R-73 (1 x 30-mm cannon)
8. Shenyang J-11B
The Chinese pirate version of the ‘Flanker’ features a reduced radar cross section and improved weapons and avionics. With the latest Type 1474 radar (with a 100 miles + range) and the highly-regarded PL-12 active radar AAM, it is an impressive fighter.
6 x PL-12, 4 x PL-10 (or R-73E) + ( 1 x 30-mm cannon)
7. Mikoyan MiG-31BM
The MiG-31 is designed for maximum BVR performance. Against bombers and cruise missiles it is superbly capable (and would be ranked higher on this list), however as a defensive interceptor it is vulnerable to more agile and stealthier fighter opponents. The fastest modern fighter in the world, with a top speed of Mach 2.83, the MiG-31 offers some unique capabilities. Until the advent of Meteor-armed Gripens, no operational aircraft had a longer air-to-air weapon than the type’s huge R-33, which can engage targets well over 100 miles away. The recent K-74M, which is believed to be in limited operational service, is even more potent and may even have some advantages of Meteor.
Designed to hunt in packs of four or more aircraft the type can sweep vast swathes of airspace, sharing vital targeting information by data-link with other aircraft. The enormous PESA radar was the first ever fitted to a fighter. The type is marred by a mountainous radar cross section and abysmal agility at lower speeds. More on the MiG-31 here and here.
4 x R-33, 2 x R-40TD (1 x 23-mm cannon)
6. Sukhoi Su-35
The Su-35 is considerably more capable than earlier ‘Flanker’ families and would pose a significant challenge to any ‘eurocanard’. Su-35S were deployed in Syria in 2016 to provide air cover for Russian forces engaged in anti-rebel/ISIL attacks. The Su-35 is even more powerful than the Su-30M series and boasts improved avionics and man-machine interface. More on the Su-35 can be found here. Teething problems encountered in Syria are now being rectified, though the type still lacks maturity.
A2A armament: 6 x R-77, 4 x R-73 (1 x 30-mm cannon)
5. McDonnell Douglas F-15C (V) 3 Eagle/Boeing F-15SG/F-15SE
Though the famously one-sided score sheet of the F-15 should be taken with a pinch of salt (Israeli air-to-air claims are often questionable to say the least), the F-15 has proved itself a tough, kickass fighter that can be depended on. It lacks the agility (certainly at lower speeds) of its Russian counterparts, but in its most advanced variants has an enormously capable radar in the APG-63(V)3. The F-15 remains the fastest Western fighter to have ever entered service, and is currently the fastest non-Russian frontline aircraft of any kind in the world. The type is cursed by a giant radar cross section, a massive infra-red signature and an inferior high altitude performance to a newer generation of fighters.
A2A armament: 6 x AIM-120C-7, 2 x AIM-9X (1 x 20-mm cannon)
4. Dassault Rafale
In 2018 the Rafale F3R will be in service with both AESA and Meteor — giving the Typhoon more than a run for its money. However, though testing has been completed with Meteor, Rafale does not yet carry it. The maturation of the Rafale’s AESA pushes the Rafale from its previous number 7 to a very respectable number 4.
The Rafale is extremely agile, with one of the lowest radar cross sections of a ‘conventional’ aircraft and its defensive systems are generally considered superior to those of its arch-rival, the Typhoon (though the Typhoon’s have been considerably updated). It falls down in its main armament, the MICA, which is generally considered to have a lower maximum range than later model AMRAAMs. It has a little less poke than the Typhoon in terms of thrust-to-weight ratio leading some potential customers in hot countries to demand an engine upgrade. It has yet to be integrated with a helmet cueing system in operational service.
A2A armament: 6 x MICA (possibly 8 if required, though this has not been seen operationally) (one 30-mm cannon)
A high power-to-weight ratio, a large wing and a well designed cockpit put the Typhoon pilot in an advantageous position in a BVR engagement. Acceleration rates, climb rates (according to a German squadron leader it can out-climb a F-22) and agility at high speeds are exceptionally good. Pilot workload is very low compared to most rivals and the aircraft has proved reliable. The type will be the ‘last swinging disc in town’ as it will be among the last modern fighters to feature a mechanically scanned radar; the Captor radar may use an old fashioned technology but is still a highly-rated piece of equipment. The Typhoon has a smaller radar cross section than both the F-15 and Su-30 and superior high altitude performance to Rafale. Combat persistence is good and the AIM-132 ASRAAM of RAF aircraft are reported to have a notable BVR capability. On the recent Atlantic Trident exercise where the F-22 ‘fought’ alongside F-22s and F-35s it was praised for its defensive aids (which have undergone some updates).
A2A armament (RAF): 6 x AIM-120C-5, 2 x AIM-132 (1 x 27-mm cannon)
3. Saab Gripen C/D
In our original list from four years ago, the Gripen did not even make the top ten. Its dramatic jump to the number two position (see last year’s list here) was due to one reason: the entry into operational service (in April 2016) of the MBDA Meteor missile. The Gripen is the first fighter in the world to carry the long-delayed Meteor. The Meteor outranges every Western weapon, and thanks to its ramjet propulsion (an innovation for air-to-air missiles) it has a great deal of energy, even at the outer extremes of its flight profile, allowing it to chase maneuvering targets at extreme ranges. Many air forces have trained for years in tactics to counter AMRAAM, but few know much about how to respond to the vast No Escape Zone of Meteor. This combined with a two-way datalink (allowing assets other than the firer to communicate with the missile), the aircraft’s low radar signature, and the Gripen’s pilot’s superb situational awareness makes the small Swedish fighter a particularly nasty threat to potential enemies. The Gripen is not the fastest nor longest-legged fighter, nor is its radar particularly powerful. It would have to be used carefully, taking advantage of its advanced connectivity, to make the most of its formidable armament.
4 x MBDA Meteor + 2 x IRIS-T (1 x 27-mm cannon)
2. Lockheed Martin F-35A Lightning II
The F-35A makes its debut on this list in the number two slot. Stealth and unparalleled situational awareness make a potent beyond visual fighter of the F-35A, despite its pedestrian kinematic performance. The F-35A has gained a formidable reputation in large-scale war-games; against conventional opponents the F-35 raking up a reported 17-1 simulated aerial victories. The F-35, if it is to stay in a stealthy configuration, has fewer missiles than its rivals. It also lacks the agility and high altitude performance of the F-22, Rafale or Typhoon.
4 x AIM-120C-5 (1 x 25-mm cannon)
1. Lockheed Martin F-22 Raptor
Undisputed king of beyond-visual range air combat is the F-22 Raptor. Its superbly stealthy design means it is likely to remain undetected to enemy fighters, calmly despatching its hapless opponents. The type’s excellent AESA radar is world class, and its ‘low-probability of interception’ operation enables to see without being seen. When high-altitude limitations are not in place (due to safety concerns) the type fights from a higher perch than F-15s and F-16s, and is more frequently supersonic. High and fast missile shots give its AMRAAMs far greater reach and allow the type to stay out harm’s way. Firing trials have been completed with the latest AMRAAM, the longer-ranged and more sophisticated AIM-120D, but this has yet to enter service.
The F-22 is expensive, suffers from a poor radius of action for its size and has suffered a high attrition rate for a modern fighter.
6 x AIM-120C-5 + 2 x AIM-9M (1 x 20-mm cannon)
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You may also enjoy top WVR and BVR fighters of today, an interview with a Super Hornet pilot and a Pacifist’s Guide to Warplanes. Want something more bizarre? The Top Ten fictional aircraft is a fascinating read, as is The Strange Story of The Planet Satellite. Fashion Versus Aircraft Camo is also a real cracker.
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Thx for your enthusiasm, but I must strongly disagree: you put gripen 3rd because of meteor ( and I partially agree despite having weak radar and no useful supercruise), and you put in top ten russian fighters which lack any decent bvr missile both in effecitveness and numbers ? R77 is comparable at best with old sparrow, and is not used by russian themselves because of its very poor effecitveness….British pilots claims than even a tornado adv with 4 amrammC has much better at bvr then su-35 with its poor missiles…Is not topic about bvr?… Lets also say that BAE alaims that new E-caesar gonna be able to detect f35 sized fighter much longer then 72km (They say thai is phisically impossible that a typhonn gonna detect an f-35 any shoerter then 72km, possibly much more)…Considering also 200 degrees repositioning antenna, new E-caesar gonna be easily best air to air radr in the world.
In a 5 years time , i think my personal top 3 would be 1: f35+meteor (if its integration gonna be funded) 2 typhoon + caesar and meteor (remember also the 2 steps military trhust options 10% and 25%: many pilots claims that typhoon can outclimb f22 even in basic trusth configuration) 3 f22 plus amraam …remember also that IRIS-T is certified to intercept fast ,small and agile wvr missiles, so should be easier to intercept a bvr missile…
The F-35? First they have to get the thing working. It still doesn’t work and I don’t know how it ended up on this list. It’s a complete piece of garbage and you Americans will rue the day that the Pentagon gave Lockheed the green light on this debacle!
So you ranked the Gripen before the MiG-31BM hahaha
Gripen E/F “Gripen NG” is able to supercruise. And yes, it may not reach quite the same top-speed or altitude as some of the contenders on the list. But there are three, well actually four, things I’d be very careful to challenge:
1)anything that carries a SAAB label, esp.SAAB fighter jet or submarine (superior situational awareness, tactical link and sensor/radar technology w/ lowest emissions and footprint)
2)Finnish Defence Force, current F-18 Hornets included (claimed inferior climb rate simply not true; F-18 (Super-)Hornet also delivers both at show and on the go -even with maximum load)
3)The Russian Navy
4)Israeli Defence Force and intel
I cannot believe the F-22 is still hitting the top of lists what with its attrition, small load-out and sheer reliance on stealth which is countered by any radar that works in bands not covered by its protection or infrared track (like PIRATE). I know its a “popular” plane due to the media and America appraisal but its faults are unlikely to ever be ironed out.
I agree with the Gripen being raised high though, any plane with Meteor starts to push other planes heavily down the list. A Typhoon with Meteor, Captor-E? Makes other air forces obsolete what with their super-cruise, high altitude and decent maneuverability and load. Granted, those things are not quite yet in play yet but we are just waiting for the bureaucrats to stop messing about and cut the red tape down in the UK.
Your list last year was much better since the F-35 STILL doesn’t work. How can you rank a plane that still doesn’t work over planes that do? That F-35 is a COMPLETE P.O.S. and its low RCS is completely outdone by that MASSIVE engine plume that ANY IRST would pick-up IMMEDIATELY. No plane flies with its radar on in wartime anyways because that’s like a submarine sending off active pings in the water! Radar stealth has been rendered useless for fighters by IRST. It’s still viable for strike missions but for how long? Remember the F-117 that bit the dust in Yugoslavia.
First of all, I truely admire the author’s work of this blog. I came across it a few days ago and cannot stop to read the articles especially on modern fighter jets. Dear Sir or Madam, please keep up your excellent work!
Having read numerous different texts of different kinds especially about the Eurofighter Typhoon, I became critical about the absolute sense and effect of stealth coatings facing passive suits like Praetorian, SPECTRA and IDAS-3 in modern air battles. It seems to me that the very nature of e.g. radar-led tactics proved to be prone to advanced jamming techniques, which left aircraft like F-22’s and -35’s without distinctive advantage in the end. I recall one (British? German?) Typhoon pilot formulating “It’s not so much what the Typhoon is, but how you use it.” In combination with the scarce information available, this perspective shaped my understanding of “the European approach”, that combines low partial observability with high physical performance and advanced sensors & EW suits (also due to its growth potential) for the sake of a higher affordability.
I’d like to address 3 points here, I respect your opinions but I would just like to share mine. I will try to add links for reference as well.
1. “effect of stealth coatings facing passive suits like Praetorian, SPECTRA and IDAS-3 in modern air battles”
-In RedFlag 17-1 the 5th generation fighters were pitted against what was described as “the largest number of advanced threats” they were pitted against passive optical, IR and passive EM sensors but still performed spectacularly. Are we going to assume that the USAF, RAF and RAAF simply pitted the F-22 and F-35 against threats that it can easily handle?
2. which left aircraft like F-22’s and -35’s without distinctive advantage in the end.
-Bear in mind that Stealth is not the only advantage of 5th gen platforms, advancements include
*advanced and powerful sensors
*high physical performance
For the F-22 it’s a no brainier but did you know what the Brits had to say regarding the Raptor’s performance?
Read here: https://typhoon.starstreak.net/Eurofighter/tech.php
“the Eurofighter’s acceleration at Mach 0.9 and 22,000ft equals that of the F-22. At supersonic velocities (Mach 1.6 and 36,000ft) the sustained turn rate of the Eurofighter betters all but the F-22, while its instantaneous turn rate is superior to the F-22. At low altitudes, Eurofighter can accelerate from 200kts to Mach 1.0 in under 30 seconds. In a similar vain to its supersonic performance, the sustained and instantaneous subsonic turn rates of the Eurofighter are bettered only by the F-22”
for the F-35, years of having been labled as flying pig gave people the impression that it was a poor performer, not knowing that the F-35 was being tested with a heavily restricted flight envelope which is normal in an aircraft’s test phase.
The performance of the F-35 in the Paris air show showcased it’s ability to pull to a 90 degree max performance take off after a short take off roll, it also had the ability to do a flat spin maneuver, something that the Russians cannot do to their non thrust vectoring equipped jets and finally a full 360 turn in 19 seconds, the Su-35 does it in 23 seconds by comparison.
But if that isn’t enough, just talk to the pilots
Read here: http://nationalinterest.org/blog/the-buzz/new-report-details-what-31-us-air-force-pilots-who-flew-the-17266
“1. Even with developmental restrictions that limit the F-35A’s responsiveness and ability to maneuver, every U.S. fighter pilot interviewed would pick the F-35A over his former jet in a majority of air-to-air (dogfight) engagement scenarios they could face.
2. A former F-15C instructor pilot said he consistently beat his former jet in mock dogfights.
3. A former F-16C instructor—and graduate of the Air Force Weapons Instructor Course (Which is similar to the Navy’s famed “Top Gun” school)—said the jet is constrained on how tight it can turn (G-limited) now. But even so, the rudder-assisted turns are incredible and deliver a constant 28 degrees of turn a second. When the Air Force removes the restrictions, this jet will be eye watering.